ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS
The addition of chemicals to food substances to facilitate their development and conservation, improve narcoleptic characteristics and to eliminate or control natural or artificial contaminants is being subjected to laws and increasingly stringent controls.
The use of additives increases the utilization of food and food raw materials, prevents many who are caducables and provides people lost a greater variety of attractive food, which would otherwise be impossible. However, these benefits must be weighed against the known risks. Often difficult questions arise. As an example of the complexity of the problem can be considered the use of nitrite in cured meats to inhibit Clostridium botulinum growth and give them the desired flavor. However, there is evidence that nitrite is converted in the body into minestrone, which are known to be carcinogenic in animals. This problem has not yet been fully resolved. Another example is the sweetening agents. Cyclamates have been banned because, at high doses, are carcinogenic in animals. It is allowed to use intense sweeteners such as saccharin and aspartame. Other sweeteners used in larger amounts, as fructose, sorbitol and xylitol have the same caloric content as sugar and consuming large amounts (30-50 g / d) may cause abdominal pain or diarrhea.
There is now concern production of food intolerances and allergies in susceptible individuals by certain additives, especially coloring agents allowed. However, most of these reactions are caused by natural food.
It is not possible to completely eliminate certain food contaminants without damaging them. Action levels which vary for different foodstuffs are established. Thus, the residual tolerance to aldrin and dieldrin is 0.03 ppm to 0.3 ppm eggs but for butter, fish (smoked, frozen, canned) and milk. Aflatoxin (found mainly in peanuts, especially if they are not fresh), a known liver carcinogen in animals, has a residual level of 20 ppb tolerance for peanuts and their derivatives and 0.5 ppb for milk. It has set a limit of 0.5 ppm for lead in evaporated and 1.0 ppm for mercury in fish, oysters, clams, mussels and wheat milk.
In summary, the health problems that have been proven caused by additives have been of little importance, except for isolated incidents. ¿PROTEIN PLANT OR ANIMAL? Because only assimilate amino acids and complete proteins, the body can not distinguish whether these amino acids come from protein of animal or vegetable origin. Comparing both types of proteins we note: · The animal proteins are much larger and more complex molecules, which contain a greater quantity and diversity of amino acids. Generally, Biological Value is greater than those of vegetable origin. In return they are harder to digest, since there are greater number of bonds between amino acids to break. Properly combining vegetable proteins (legumes with cereals or milk with cereal) can obtain a balanced set of amino acids. For example, rice proteins contain all the essential amino acids, but are low in lysine. If combined with lentils or chickpeas, abundant in lysine, biological quality and resulting protein intake is greater than that of most animal products. · Taking animal protein from meat, poultry or fish we eat well all cellular metabolic waste present in those tissues (ammonia, uric acid, etc.), the animal was not removed before slaughter. These compounds act as toxins in our body. The metabolism of plants is different and these nitrogen derivatives are not present. Toxic meat can be avoided by consuming animal protein from eggs, milk and milk products. In any case, always be preferred eggs and dairy to meat, fish and poultry. Here, also we prefer fish to birds, and poultry to red meat or pork. · Animal protein is often accompanied by animal fat, mostly saturated part. It has been shown that a high intake of saturated fatty acids increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. In general, it is recommended that one-third of the proteins we eat are of animal origin, but it is perfectly possible to be well nourished only with vegetable proteins. Yes, taking care to combine these foods in terms of their limiting amino acids. The problem with vegetarian diets in the West is usually more in the deficit of certain vitamins, such as B12, and minerals, such as iron. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS As with vitamins, a good way to provide the body with the elements minerals you need is to consume a daily plate of salad and a fruit. A good way may also be taking daily a juice prepared in a blender, preferably on an empty stomach, because the absorption of minerals (and vitamins) is best when the stomach and intestines are empty. We should not peel the fruit as it consistently the higher mineral content is in the skin. Whether to wash thoroughly to remove any traces of pesticides. Another good measure is to use the water to cook food to make broths and soups. WATER Water is the main component of living things. In fact, they can live for months without food, but only survive a few days without water. The human body is 75% water at birth and about 60% in adulthood. Approximately 60% of this water is in the interior of the cells (intracellular water). The rest (extracellular water) is flowing in the blood and bathes the tissues. In the water body reactions that allow us alive occur. This is because the enzyme (protein agents involved in the transformation of the substances used for the production of energy and synthesis of own material) of an aqueous medium need to adopt a three-dimensional structure active form. Water is the medium through which the cells of our bodies communicate and by which oxygen and nutrients to our tissues is transported. And water is also responsible for removing waste from our bodies and waste products of cellular metabolism. Finally, thanks to the high capacity of water evaporation, we can regulate our temperature, sweating or losing it by mucous when the outside temperature is very high. In the combustion reactions of nutrients that occurs within cells energy for small amounts of water are produced. The formation of water is greater than fat oxidation – 1 gr. of water per gr. fat – 0.6 gr starches. per g., starch-. The water produced in cellular respiration is called metabolic water and is essential for animals adapted to desert conditions. If camels can withstand months without drinking is because they use the water produced by burning stored fat in their humps. In humans, the metabolic water production on a normal diet does not exceed 0.3 liters per day. Daily water requirements is very important to consume enough water every day to the correct operation of the processes of assimilation and especially for the disposal of cellular metabolism. We need about three liters of water a day at least, of which approximately half get from food and the other half we get drinking. Of course, in certain situations or stages of life these needs can increase significantly. Recommendations on water consumption If we consume a lot of water during or after meals, we reduce the acidity in the stomach to dilute the gastric juices. This can cause the enzymes that require a certain degree of acidity to act becomes inactive and slow down digestion. The enzymes that continue to act for the decrease in acidity, they lose efficiency when being diluted. If we make drinks with meals are cold, stomach temperature decreases and digestion slows down even more. As a general rule, we drink in the intervals between meals, two hours after a meal and a half hour before the next meal . It is especially recommended to drink one or two glasses of water upon waking. So we got a better hydration and activate the body’s cleansing mechanisms. In most populations is preferable to consume mineral water or spring or reliable source to tap water. A public water distribution networks are added chemicals such as fluorine or chlorine, which despite being essential to prevent microbiological contamination can be dangerous even in the doses used for public health. In the United States it has been found that one in four bladder cancers in non-smokers, or one in ten smokers, due to the chlorination of drinking water. Furthermore, if the pipes through which the water to our taps are made ??of lead, it is useful to know that this heavy metal is dissolved in the drinking water, and that lead is toxic to the body. When ingested, even in very small doses, it can lead to serious diseases. Can also be found in tap water other highly toxic elements such as mercury, cadmium and nitrates from agricultural pesticides (especially in industrial or agricultural areas).